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Saturday, November 18, 2023

Streamlining agriculture operations with serverless anomaly detection utilizing AWS IoT


Honeybees dwell in swarms of tens of 1000’s, gathering nectar. On this course of, they carry pollen from one flowering plant to a different, pollinating them.

” Near 75 p.c of the world’s crops producing fruits and seeds for human use rely, a minimum of partially, on pollinators[1]. ”

In addition to being one in all nature’s key pollinators, bees remodel nectar into honey. With the assistance of beekeepers, like David Gerber from Switzerland, this scrumptious honey is made obtainable for world consumption.

David Gerber’s IoT enabled beehives (Neuchatel, Switzerland)

Determine 1: David Gerber’s IoT enabled beehives (Neuchatel, Switzerland)

Bees dwell in hives. These hives are sometimes positioned in distant places, like forests or excessive mountain pastures. These distant places make monitoring the well being of bees difficult. Nonetheless, by creating linked options utilizing cloud-based companies, similar to AWS IoT Core and AWS Lambda, beekeepers can implement close to real-time monitoring instruments to trace well being parameters for a bee hive. AWS IoT Core is a totally managed cloud service, that permits you to join Web of Issues (IoT) units and route their messages to AWS with out managing infrastructure. AWS Lambda is a serverless compute service permitting you to deploy code with out provisioning or deploying servers. On this weblog submit, we stroll by way of an IoT structure and supply a hands-on instance of methods to create and take a look at your personal serverless anomaly detector to enhance your operations.


For this stroll by way of, you need to have the next conditions:

The hands-on instance is written in Java and the CDK infrastructure code is written in Typescript. It’s not required to have deep data in both to deploy and run the instance. This answer can run fully throughout the AWS Free Tier for one and even a number of executions. Clear-up directions are offered on the finish of this submit.

Gaining insights into hive well being

We achieve insights by measuring and sending IoT occasions. Selecting what to measure a few hive is essential. The correct metric permits us to realize insights into the lives of the bees. In Determine 2, we are able to see the variation of a hive’s weight as the times go by. At first look, the info seems fairly chaotic. Nonetheless, a better look reveals a wealth of knowledge.

Figure 2 : Weight of hive over two weeks

Determine 2 : Weight of hive over two weeks

From Determine 2, we are able to chart a hive’s main occasions over 24 hours.

  1. Bees make honey by decreasing the nectar’s water content material. Bees fan their wings to create airflow throughout the hive, inflicting the water within the nectar to evaporate. This leads to a gentle weight discount of the hives in a single day.
  2. At dawn, the bees are prepared for his or her day’s work, inflicting a sudden drop within the hive’s weight.
  3. Over the day, bees return to the hive carrying nectar with them, inflicting a gentle improve within the weight of the hive.
  4. At sundown, all of the bees return to the hive with their remaining sector leading to a sudden improve within the hive’s weight.
  5. Lastly, by evaluating the hive’s weight, on the identical time of day 24 hours aside, we are able to inform how productive the hive has been.
Figure 3 A hive's major events over 24 hours

Determine 3 A hive’s main occasions over 24 hours

Detecting anomalies

Returning to the unique dataset in Determine 3, we are able to see, in truth, the primary week has been very productive :

  1. The bees profit from glorious circumstances with a day by day improve within the hive’s weight.
  2. The beekeeper extracts roughly 10kg of honey on the finish of the week.
Figure 4 : Daily increase in hives weight

Determine 4 : Day by day improve in hives weight

Nonetheless, not each week is pretty much as good, and initially of the second week in Determine 4, we are able to see issues get off to a tougher begin.

  1. The bees don’t go away the hive; this could possibly be resulting from a scarcity of nectar within the space, an indication to contemplate transferring the hive.
  2. Or it could possibly be simply short-term unhealthy climate, which passes and permits the bees to proceed accumulating nectar in a while within the week.
Figure 5  : First week of June

Determine 5  : First week of June

After taking a collection of measurements, an anomaly deviates from what we’ve beforehand seen; it’s sudden. Unhealthy climate could be detected as an anomalous occasion, however little could be performed. Sadly, each bees and people need to dwell with it. Nonetheless, a number of different anomalous occasions could be helpful to detect in distant hives.

  1. A sudden improve within the amount of nectar obtainable for bees to gather leads to a major rise in honey manufacturing known as honeyflow.
    1. Throughout a honeyflow, the burden of a hive can improve day by day by a kilogram and lets the beekeeper understand it’s time so as to add extra house to the hive.
    2. Conversely, a stagnation in weight will increase permits the beekeeper to verify the tip of the honeyflow. The honey might be obtainable to reap a couple of days later after its moisture content material has been decreased.
  2.  A sudden improve within the day by day sector collected over a 24-hour interval lets the beekeeper understand it’s time to gather the honey and liberate house to permit the bees to proceed working.
  3. When a hive grows, it’s going to finally break up in two by swarming, with half the hive deciding to go away (a sudden lower in weight however not at dawn) with the previous queen. Sometimes, this swarm will settle in a short lived location and could be recaptured by the beekeeper if detected in time.
  4. A major discount in weight of tens of kilos implies somebody aside from the beekeeper is accumulating the honey, resulting in potential operational losses for beekepers.

Answer overview

Figure 6 : The overall AWS architecture of the solution

Determine 6 : The general AWS structure of the answer

Determine 6 reveals the general AWS structure of the answer. The answer makes use of IoT sensors deployed below every beehive to ship the hive’s weight repeatedly in an IoT occasion. These IoT sensors talk utilizing the LoRaWAN  protocol. LoRaWAN is ideally suited to the supply of IoT occasions in hard-to-reach places. It trades severely proscribing message payload dimension for the power to ship this payload over kilometers utilizing minimal energy consumption. The beehive’s IoT sensors sends the occasion to a Issues Community (TTN) Gateway. TTN democratizes entry to an IoT community, permitting members to arrange their personal gateways. This gateway is the communication hyperlink between the IoT sensor and AWS IoT Core for LoRaWAN. AWS IoT Core for LoRaWAN gives entry to a totally managed LoRaWAN Community Server (LNS), eliminating the necessity to develop, preserve, or function a separate server. Yow will discover additional particulars on integrating TTN and AWS IoT Core right here.

Utilizing AWS IoT Core Guidelines Engine, you possibly can robotically route messages to Amazon Easy Queue Service (Amazon SQS). This decouples AWS IoT Core from AWS Lambda, permitting the IoT occasion to be processed asynchronously. AWS Lambda permits the anomaly detection code to be deployed in a serverless vogue, eliminating, but once more, the necessity to handle your infrastructure. AWS Lambda will scale horizontally to satisfy any improve in IoT site visitors. The primary of two Lambda features persists the occasion and permits all earlier occasions to be sorted on retrieval. Retrieval of occasions in chronological order is important in figuring out whether or not an occasion is anomalous.

The anomaly detection code operating in AWS Lambda lies on the coronary heart of the answer. It depends on an implementation of the Random Minimize Forest (RCF) [2] algorithm written by AWS. RCF is a machine studying algorithm able to detecting anomalies in an unsupervised method. The algorithm constructs collections of random binary bushes. An anomaly rating displays how far some extent is from the others within the tree. Outlying information factors are much less more likely to be in keeping with different information factors within the tree, resulting in larger anomaly scores. RCF is designed to course of streamed multi-dimensional information effectively, making it good for our state of affairs of streamed IoT messages containing the beehive’s weight. Lastly, the beekeeper could be notified of anomalous occasions utilizing Amazon Easy Notification Service.

Palms-on setup structure

Figure 7 : Simulation architecture

Determine 7 : Simulation structure

To check the anomaly detection answer extra simply from our laptops, we’ve created a 3rd Lambda perform, which is able to simulate the creation of IoT occasions throughout Might (see Determine 7).

Figure 8 : Simulation data

Determine 8 : Simulation information

Determine 8 visualizes the artificial information used for the simulation.  The info reveals a gradual improve within the hive’s weight over thirty days ranging from the first of Might. The hive’s weight peaks every night whereas regularly decreasing in weight in a single day, with a sudden dip because the hive departs at dawn. The hive’s weight slowly recovers throughout the day with the return of nectar-laden bees. The info set accommodates 720 information factors (30 days occasions 24 hours). Just one information level is uncommon: the eighth of Might, when the hive’s weight is unexpectedly decreased by 1.5+ Kg. This instance reveals the ability of the RCF algorithm; a easy threshold worth won’t suffice because of the hives growing weight. Certainly the eighth of Might anomaly is a legitimate information level on the morning of the 4th of Might.

Simulation execution and outcomes

The purpose of the simulation is to accurately determine the one anomalous IoT occasion (on the eighth of Might at 04:00) among the many 719 different occasions. Please confer with the beehive-anomaly-detection-simulation git repository for extra particulars on setting setup and directions on how one can run the simulation out of your laptop computer.

  1. Earlier than we deploy any infrastructure, we first need to compile and bundle the Java Lambda by operating the next instructions:
git clone https://github.com/aws-samples/iot-beehive-anomaly-detection-simulation-blog-source-code.git
cd iot-beehive-anomaly-detection-simulation-blog-source-code
mvn clear set up
  1. The infrastructure for this simulation is described utilizing AWS Cloud Growth Package (CDK). CDK means that you can outline every infrastructure part as code, in our case, utilizing typescript.
const iotEventsSQSQueue = new sqs.Queue(this, 'IoTEventsSQSQueue', {
    visibilityTimeout: cdk.Period.seconds(120),
    queueName: 'iot-events'

new iot.TopicRule(this, 'IoTEventsSQSQueueRule', {
    topicRuleName: 'ioTEventsSQSQueue',
    description: 'invokes the lambda perform',
    sql: iot.IotSql.fromStringAsVer20160323("SELECT * FROM 'iot/beehive'"),
    actions: [new actions.SqsQueueAction(iotEventsSQSQueue)],

For instance, within the code snippet above, we describe the creation of an SQS queue named iot-events and an AWS IoT Core rule that forwards IoT occasions from the iot/beehive MQTT matter to the SQS queue. Equally, all of the remaining infrastructure elements (the three Lambdas and one DynamoDB desk) are outlined in infrastructure/lib/infrastructure-stack.ts

We deploy the infrastructure utilizing the next CDK instructions. If that is the primary time you deploy infrastructure with CDK, you’ll need to bootstrap. CDK bootstrapping units up permissions insurance policies, an AWS CloudFormation stack, and an S3 bucket to retailer deployment belongings. It’s required solely as soon as per account and area.

Run the next instructions to deploy our infrastructure:

cd infrastructure
npm set up
cdk bootstrap
cdk deploy
  1. Now, we are able to start the simulation correct by invoking the IoTBeehiveEventsSimulator. On the core of this Lambda, we create an AWSIotDataAsyncClient, a consumer for accessing the AWS IoT Knowledge aircraft asynchronously. For each ingredient in the iot-beehive-events-simulator-lambda/src/most important/sources/hive-sample-events.json array an IoT occasion is shipped to the MQTT matter iot/beehive. The standard of service (QoS) is about to 1, guaranteeing the occasion is shipped a minimum of as soon as. As we can’t assure precisely as soon as occasion supply in distributed programs, the selection is between not receiving an occasion or receiving an occasion a number of occasions. Nonetheless, we are able to guarantee precisely as soon as processing by making every Lambda idempotent. They return the identical end result whether or not they’re known as as soon as or many occasions.
AWSIotData iotClient = AWSIotDataAsyncClientBuilder.defaultClient();

for (HiveEvent hiveEvent : hiveEvents) {
    PublishRequest publishRequest = new PublishRequest()

Run the next command to start the simulation:

aws lambda invoke --function-name IoTBeehiveEventsSimulatorLambda --cli-binary-format raw-in-base64-out --payload '{"hiveID":"1"}' response.json

We are able to verify that each one IoT occasions have been persevered efficiently by operating a full scan of the DynamoDB desk with the next command and guaranteeing the result’s 720.

aws dynamodb scan --table-name HIVE_EVENTS --select "COUNT"

Notice: Be at liberty to name IoTBeehiveEventsSimulator a number of occasions, confirming every distinctive occasion is processed precisely as soon as.

  1. Lastly, it’s time to find out if any IoT occasions are anomalous by operating IoTAnomalyDetectionLambda. The anomaly detection Lambda reads the IoT occasions from a DynamoDB desk. DynamoDB is important in guaranteeing no occasions are misplaced and permits the processing of IoT occasions so as (based on their timestamp). Whether or not the hive weight at any explicit time limit is as anticipated can solely be decided by an ordered processing of earlier occasions.

Run the next instructions to start the anomaly detection. The outcomes are saved within the response.json file:

aws lambda invoke --function-name IoTAnomalyDetectionLambda --cli-binary-format raw-in-base64-out --payload '{"hiveID": "1"}' response.json
much less response.json | jq

Pattern Response:

    "datetime": "2023-05-08 04:00:00.0 +0200",
    "weight": 64650,
    "anomalyGrade": 1.0,
    "anomalyScore": 1.2257463093204803,
    "expectedValue": 66195,
    "isEventAnomalous": true

An anomaly rating represents how seemingly the occasion is to be an outlier, with a threshold worth of 1.0 usually used to indicate an anomaly. The rating of a mannequin and its (inverse remodel to) inference are thought of individually. Therefore, we have now an anomaly grade. In our case the transformation is a normalization of the occasion stream, the place the linear improve in weight of the hive is factored out. An anomaly grade ranges from 0 to 1, the place a worth higher than 0 is seemingly anomalous.

Figure 9: Successful detection of anomaly

Determine 9: Profitable detection of anomaly

In determine 9 we are able to see the CloudWatch metrics reported by the anomaly detection algorithm present certainly, solely a single anomaly has been detected. Moreover, the response confirms the anomalous occasion is from 04:00 on the eighth of Might.

Calculating an occasion’s anomaly detection by reprocessing the earlier occasions saved in DynamoDB provides a number of seconds of latency to the rating calculation. Nonetheless, this enables the answer to stay fully serverless, making it an appropriate trade-off. Streaming the occasions utilizing Amazon Managed Service for Apache Flink could possibly be another answer for latency-sensitive options.

Cleansing up

Infrastructure created with CDK could be very simply torn down. Merely run the next instructions from a terminal.

cd infrastructure
cdk destroy


The weblog submit confirmed how IoT can remedy thrilling and essential challenges within the pure world. The structure we offered is fully serverless, protecting prices and infrastructure upkeep efforts low. Lastly, we walked by way of a hands-on instance the place you possibly can dive into the code and run the simulations your self. If you wish to work by yourself IoT tasks, try TTN and AWS IoT.


[1] https://www.fao.org/world-bee-day/en/

[2] https://belongings.amazon.science/d2/71/046d0f3041bda0188021395b8f48/robust-random-cut-forest-based-anomaly-detection-on-streams.pdf

David Gerber.jpg

David Gerber

David works along with his buyer’s groups on their full software program improvement lifecycle, from preliminary ideas proper by way of to manufacturing. He’s keen about software program improvement, IoT and … beekeeping.

Kevin Nash.jpg

Kevin Nash

Kevin is a Senior Options Architect at Amazon Net Providers (AWS), based mostly in Switzerland. With a background in distributed programs and a few years expertise constructing for the client. He’s keen about expertise, understanding how programs work and serving to clients bringing their options into the Cloud.

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