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Tuesday, May 21, 2024

Introducing Keras 3 for R

We’re thrilled to introduce keras3, the subsequent model of the Keras R
bundle. keras3 is a ground-up rebuild of {keras}, sustaining the
beloved options of the unique whereas refining and simplifying the API
based mostly on useful insights gathered over the previous few years.

Keras offers a whole toolkit for constructing deep studying fashions in
R—it’s by no means been simpler to construct, practice, consider, and deploy deep
studying fashions.

Set up

To put in Keras 3:

https://keras.posit.co. There, you will see that guides, tutorials,
reference pages with rendered examples, and a brand new examples gallery. All
the reference pages and guides are additionally obtainable through R’s built-in assist

In a fast paced ecosystem like deep studying, creating nice
documentation and wrappers as soon as is just not sufficient. There additionally have to be
workflows that make sure the documentation is up-to-date with upstream
dependencies. To perform this, {keras3} contains two new maintainer
options that make sure the R documentation and performance wrappers will keep

  • We now take snapshots of the upstream documentation and API floor.
    With every launch, all R documentation is rebased on upstream
    updates. This workflow ensures that every one R documentation (guides,
    examples, vignettes, and reference pages) and R perform signatures
    keep up-to-date with upstream. This snapshot-and-rebase
    performance is applied in a brand new standalone R bundle,
    {doctether}, which can
    be helpful for R bundle maintainers needing to maintain documentation in
    parity with dependencies.

  • All examples and vignettes can now be evaluated and rendered throughout
    a bundle construct. This ensures that no stale or damaged instance code
    makes it right into a launch. It additionally means all person going through instance code
    now moreover serves as an prolonged suite of snapshot unit and
    integration checks.

    Evaluating code in vignettes and examples continues to be not permitted
    in keeping with CRAN restrictions. We work across the CRAN restriction
    by including further bundle construct steps that pre-render

Mixed, these two options will make it considerably simpler for Keras
in R to keep up characteristic parity and up-to-date documentation with the
Python API to Keras.

Multi-backend help

Quickly after its launch in 2015, Keras featured help for hottest
deep studying frameworks: TensorFlow, Theano, MXNet, and CNTK. Over
time, the panorama shifted; Theano, MXNet, and CNTK had been retired, and
TensorFlow surged in reputation. In 2021, three years in the past, TensorFlow
turned the premier and solely supported Keras backend. Now, the panorama
has shifted once more.

Keras 3 brings the return of multi-backend help. Select a backend by

offers a complete suite of operations sometimes wanted when
working on nd-arrays for deep studying. The Operation household
supersedes and vastly expands on the previous household of backend capabilities
prefixed with k_ within the {keras} bundle.

The Ops capabilities allow you to write backend-agnostic code. They supply a
uniform API, no matter when you’re working with TensorFlow Tensors,
Jax Arrays, Torch Tensors, Keras Symbolic Tensors, NumPy arrays, or R

The Ops capabilities:

  • all begin with prefix op_ (e.g., op_stack())
  • all are pure capabilities (they produce no side-effects)
  • all use constant 1-based indexing, and coerce doubles to integers
    as wanted
  • all are protected to make use of with any backend (tensorflow, jax, torch, numpy)
  • all are protected to make use of in each keen and graph/jit/tracing modes

The Ops API contains:

  • The whole thing of the NumPy API (numpy.*)
  • The TensorFlow NN API (tf.nn.*)
  • Frequent linear algebra capabilities (A subset of scipy.linalg.*)
  • A subfamily of picture transformers
  • A complete set of loss capabilities
  • And extra!

Ingest tabular knowledge with layer_feature_space()

keras3 offers a brand new set of capabilities for constructing fashions that ingest
tabular knowledge: layer_feature_space() and a household of characteristic
transformer capabilities (prefix, feature_) for constructing keras fashions
that may work with tabular knowledge, both as inputs to a keras mannequin, or
as preprocessing steps in an information loading pipeline (e.g., a

See the reference
web page
and an
instance utilization in a full end-to-end

to be taught extra.

New Subclassing API

The subclassing API has been refined and prolonged to extra Keras
Outline subclasses just by calling: Layer(), Loss(), Metric(),
Callback(), Constraint(), Mannequin(), and LearningRateSchedule().
Defining {R6} proxy courses is not mandatory.

Moreover the documentation web page for every of the subclassing
capabilities now incorporates a complete itemizing of all of the obtainable
attributes and strategies for that kind. Try
?Layer to see what’s

Saving and Export

Keras 3 brings a brand new mannequin serialization and export API. It’s now a lot
less complicated to save lots of and restore fashions, and in addition, to export them for

  • save_model()/load_model():
    A brand new high-level file format (extension: .keras) for saving and
    restoring a full mannequin.

    The file format is backend-agnostic. This implies that you may convert
    educated fashions between backends, just by saving with one backend,
    after which loading with one other. For instance, practice a mannequin utilizing Jax,
    after which convert to Tensorflow for export.

  • export_savedmodel():
    Export simply the ahead cross of a mannequin as a compiled artifact for
    inference with TF
    or (quickly)
    Posit Join. This
    is the best technique to deploy a Keras mannequin for environment friendly and
    concurrent inference serving, all with none R or Python runtime

  • Decrease degree entry factors:

    • save_model_weights() / load_model_weights():
      save simply the weights as .h5 information.
    • save_model_config() / load_model_config():
      save simply the mannequin structure as a json file.
  • register_keras_serializable():
    Register customized objects to allow them to be serialized and

  • serialize_keras_object() / deserialize_keras_object():
    Convert any Keras object to an R record of straightforward sorts that’s protected
    to transform to JSON or rds.

  • See the brand new Serialization and Saving

    for extra particulars and examples.

New random household

A brand new household of random tensor
Just like the Ops household, these work with all backends. Moreover, all of the
RNG-using strategies have help for stateless utilization while you cross in a
seed generator. This permits tracing and compilation by frameworks that
have particular help for stateless, pure, capabilities, like Jax. See
for instance utilization.

Different additions:

  • New form()
    perform, one-stop utility for working with tensor shapes in all

  • New and improved print(mannequin) and plot(mannequin) methodology. See some
    examples of output within the Useful API

  • All new match() progress bar and dwell metrics viewer output,
    together with new dark-mode help within the RStudio IDE.

  • New config
    a curated set of capabilities for getting and setting Keras world

  • All the different perform households have expanded with new members:

Migrating from {keras} to {keras3}

{keras3} is finally a preview of the longer term {keras} bundle.

Should you’re writing new code right this moment, you can begin utilizing {keras3} proper

In case you have legacy code that makes use of {keras}, you’re inspired to
replace the code for {keras3}. For a lot of high-level API capabilities, such
as layer_dense(), match(), and keras_model(), minimal to no adjustments
are required. Nonetheless there’s a lengthy tail of small adjustments that you simply
may must make when updating code that made use of the lower-level
Keras API. A few of these are documented right here:

Should you’re working into points or have questions on updating, don’t
hesitate to ask on https://github.com/rstudio/keras/points or

The {keras} and {keras3} packages will coexist whereas the group
transitions. In the course of the transition, {keras} will proceed to obtain
patch updates for compatibility with Keras v2, which continues to be
revealed to PyPi underneath the bundle title tf-keras.

{keras3} is meant as a transition bundle title. In a future replace,
the {keras} bundle will start emitting a bundle startup message,
saying a deprecation interval. After a discover interval within the {keras}
bundle, {keras3} will probably be renamed to {keras}. At the moment {keras}
(v2) will not be supported, and {keras3} will probably be an alias for


In abstract, {keras3} is a strong replace to the Keras R bundle,
incorporating new options whereas preserving the benefit of use and
performance of the unique. The brand new multi-backend help,
complete suite of Ops capabilities, refined mannequin serialization API,
and up to date documentation workflows allow customers to simply take
benefit of the most recent developments within the deep studying group.

Whether or not you’re a seasoned Keras person or simply beginning your deep
studying journey, Keras 3 offers the instruments and adaptability to construct,
practice, and deploy fashions with ease and confidence. As we transition from
Keras 2 to Keras 3, we’re dedicated to supporting the group and
making certain a easy migration. We invite you to discover the brand new options,
take a look at the up to date documentation, and be part of the dialog on our
GitHub discussions web page. Welcome to the subsequent chapter of deep studying in
R with Keras 3!

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