What simply occurred? Final weekend, NASA’s Juno spacecraft made its second flyby of Jupiter’s moon Io in a few month. The primary cross on December 30, 2023, was a take a look at run for JunoCam to search out the optimum viewing geometries and digital camera settings. At 930 miles (1,500km), it was the closest any craft had been to the moon since Galileo skimmed the floor from 62 miles (100km) up in January 2002.
Saturday’s flyby supplied NASA with many uncooked pictures, which it launched to citizen scientists for post-processing. Juno’s shut cross allowed for excellent high-resolution photographs (above and beneath) of the extremely volcanic satellite tv for pc, together with twin plumes from two vests from one “big” volcano (or two shut collectively) that spewed molten lava dozens of miles into the sky, with gasoline and mud reaching over 200 miles into house.
Io is barely bigger than the Earth’s moon and has round 400 lively volcanoes, making it essentially the most volcanic world in our photo voltaic system. Its largest is Loki Patera, about twice the dimensions of Hawaii’s Mauna Loa. NASA calls Io a “tortured moon” due to this tumultuous exercise.
ðÂÂÂ On Feb. 3, the #JunoMission captured two volcanic plumes rising above Jupiter’s moon Io – both two vents from one big volcano, or two volcanoes close to one another. The group might be analyzing this towards further knowledge from Juno and different missions to get a greater… pic.twitter.com/CEgZMG2rSQ
– NASA Photo voltaic System (@NASASolarSystem) February 6, 2024
The photographs present what seem like many influence craters. Nonetheless, lava shortly fills impacts, leaving no hint. The darkish spots (beneath) are the remnants of collapsed volcanoes. Huge lava flows will ultimately bury these, too.
Scientists wish to study extra about what makes Io so violent. The Jovian probe’s newest flybys may present some clues. Along with imagery, Juno collected reams of information to research.
Since Io seems to have a magnetic subject, scientists assume it has a cast-iron core. Its floor appears to be only a skinny, consistently altering crust floating on molten rock. This speculation explains the fixed eruptions and big fiery lakes of lava that cowl the floor.
The outstanding concept means that Io can’t cool as a result of it’s the object of a tug-o-war between Jupiter and its largest moons, Ganymede and Callisto (with some assist from Europa). The tidal pull from these massive plenty creates fixed friction on Io, lending to its volcanic exercise.
NASA is not sure of the contents of Io’s mantle. One line of reasoning is that it is primarily molten sulfur. This supposition would clarify the moon’s yellowish tint and sulfur dioxide environment. Nonetheless, measurements point out that the molten composition is simply too sizzling to be sulfur and will consist primarily of silicate rock. Maybe Juno’s newest runs can present the solutions.
You may browse all of NASA’s JunoCam pictures in addition to processed public submissions on the house company’s web site.